First Hand Experience
Your child’s thinking, learning and other cognitive abilities develop through his experiences and knowledge now. Concepts on shapes, sizes, directions, senses, etc. get better when he practically explores them. For instance, if you want your child to understand the `directions’ concept better, a walk in the neighbourhood will help.
Let him read the street signs and identify the numbers on the apartment, to locate his friend’s house. You can use directional terms, “First we take left turn, then go straight. Your friend’s house is 3 blocks away from our home.”
If you want to tell about the cardinal directions, you can say, “We get lot of light in our living room because it faces east where Sun rises in the morning and the opposite side is west, where Sun sets. You can also show him a compass.
Concepts like sink, float, heavy, light, etc. get better through experiments. You can practically show why a pen floats or a stone sinks. Get your child to try with different objects and say his observation.
Invest in puzzles, shapes, blocks, where he tries to solve, sort out objects, position objects. While playing with blocks, he becomes aware of the space(spatial awareness). As your child works with these games, you can also work on his language and vocabulary. For instance, this is a square where all sides are same. You can point out the sides of the square.